Virginia Review of Asian Studies

Current Issue: Volume 23 (2021)

The Virginia Review of Asian Studies (VRAS) is an annual peer-reviewed on-line publication of the Virginia Consortium for Asian Studies (VCAS)  VCAS is a loose association of college and university-based Asian Studies programs founded in the 1970s  to promote Asian affairs and cultures.   VRAS (ISSN 2169-6306) replaces The Occasional Papers of the Virginia Consortium for Asian Studies that was published from time to time from 1984 through 1990. It is indexed at

VRAS is designed to promote quality scholarship on Asia in Virginia and the Southeast, but potential articles and reviews from outside the region are welcome as well. The editors of VRAS invite material on any aspect of Asia Studies for review by the Editor and selected peer reviewers. Because VCAS especially encourages research and study on Asia in the classroom, high quality work from graduate students and advanced undergraduates is very welcome. Faculty are invited to submit exceptional scholarly work by advanced students in graduate and undergraduate programs.

Editorial and business matters should be addressed to the Editor: Dr. Daniel A. Métraux, 413 Whitehall Ave., Staunton VA 24401, USA  or by Email: Please submit all material for editorial consideration for the 2022 issue of the VRAS no later than 10 May 2022. All material submitted for possible publication in the VRAS must be submitted electronically to the editor at

All rights reserved. No part of the VRAS may be produced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without permission in writing by the editor and the article author. However, authors of articles and other material published in the VRAS may revise and republish their own articles elsewhere without permission of the Editor of VRAS.  Authors of all published articles and reviews hold the copyright © to their own published material.  © 2021 by Virginia Review of Asian Studies.

Editors and Editorial Consultants:

Editor: Daniel A. Métraux, Mary Baldwin University
Production Editor: Dustin Yoxall, Maryland
Editorial Board of Advisors: Paul Capobianco, University of Iowa; William Head, Office of History, Robins AFB, Georgia; David Wang, St. John’s University. Margaret Richardson, Christopher Newport University; Triveni Mathur, Symbiosis Center for Media and Communication, Pune, India ; Roderic Owen, Mary Baldwin University; Amy Miller, Mary Baldwin University; Nasreen Akhtar, International Islamic University.